Adhere to the advanced nature of technology, orderly and rational use of foreign capital, together with domestic enterprises to become the two wheels of the development of the rubber industry.
Foreign companies are optimistic about China's tire market, and have come to China to set up factories, starting from joint ventures, cheap acquisitions, and then wholly-owned factories. The top 10 global multinational tire companies all entered China, and other foreign companies also flocked to Michelin. 23 foreign companies such as Bridgestone, Goodyear, Hankook and Jiatong have used more than 40 radial tire companies in China through the preferential policies of foreign investment in China. Foreign-funded enterprises mainly use Chinese equipment and Chinese raw materials, starting from the production of low-end products, and gradually upgrading with new technologies and new products to expand their market competitiveness. Their passenger semi-steel radial tires and all-steel radial tires rely on large companies. The advantages of big brands and new cars, the proportion of products once accounted for 65% and 30% of the national total.
The tire industry is dominated by state-owned, state-owned and large private enterprises, forming a leading position with foreign-funded enterprises, promoting each other in competition and competing for development. In 1985, the total output of tires nationwide was 19.25 million. The first radial tires appeared in the tire production statistics, with an annual output of 280,000. In 1990, the total tire output was 28.16 million, and the radial tire output was 1.18 million. In 1995, the tires. The total output was 55.71 million, and the number of radial tires was 6.89 million. In 2000, the total output of tires was 109 million, which exceeded 100 million for the first time. The number of radial tires was 36 million, and the rate of meridian was 33%. In the year, the total output of China's tires reached 250 million, of which 141 million radial tires, the rate of meridian was 59.2%, the total tire output exceeded the United States, ranking first in the world; in 2015, the total tire output was 565 million, meridian The output of tires reached 511 million, and the meridian rate reached the international advanced level of 91.2%. The introduction of technical equipment, digestion and absorption and localization, wrote a glorious chapter in the history of the development of the rubber industry.
Other rubber-based products, mainly based on independent research and development, combined with the introduction of equipment, vigorously implement technological transformation, product upgrades continue to advance.
As a necessity to improve people's lives, rubber shoes are also the first products to be upgraded and upgraded. The market has replaced new energy-saving, consumption-reducing, beautiful and practical new products such as sports shoes, casual shoes, sneakers and wedge women's shoes. Traditional liberation shoes are developing towards medium and high-end products. The old enterprise, the old famous brand Qingdao Double Star, took the lead in the factory “going up the mountain to the countryside”; the original post-owned enterprise formed the Jihua Group, and implemented intensive management; the glory of Zhejiang Ruian, the humanity, the peak of Sichuan and Chongqing, Qiangbu, Henan Feihe, Fuda and other private enterprises have risen from the group, and the five major sectors account for about 80% of the national rubber shoe production and export. Fujian Jinjiang, Shandong Dongying and other places have formed a joint venture group, with cold-adhesive craft shoes, to undertake the major transfer of international big-name shoe companies, well-known brand products. Shanghai's “Puerback” sneakers, the return of this nearly 100-year-old brand, are active in domestic and foreign markets and become the new favorite. China's rubber shoes industry is one of the new features. In 1985, the national rubber shoe production reached 687 million pairs. In 1990, it reached 888 million pairs. Although it has been fluctuating since then, it has been stable at more than 1 billion pairs, and its production and export volume rank first in the world. .
Conveyor belt is the main component of large-scale and continuous belt transportation in coal mines, docks, metallurgy, cement, chemical industry and construction industry. As the key point of product upgrading and upgrading in the industry, it is difficult to overcome the production technology, equipment and raw materials of difficult-to-fire conveyor belts. At the same time of mass production, the main focus will be on the development and production of high-strength conveyor belts such as polyester nylon belt conveyor belts, steel cord conveyor belts, steel cables and steel meshes; according to demand, heat resistance, cold resistance, oil resistance and resistance are developed. Special conveyor belts such as acid and alkali; tubular, rib, pattern, lift and lid conveyor belts have been developed on the product structure. Large-scale private enterprises and state-owned conveyor belt production companies such as Qingdao Rubber Six, Zhejiang Double Arrow, Three-Dimensional, Wuxi Baotong, Yangquan Oren, Anhui Zhongyi and Fuxin Huanyu led the development. From 1985 to 2015, the total annual output of conveyor belts increased from 59 million square meters to 490 million square meters, with an average increase of 7.3%. During the “11th Five-Year Plan” period, the output of high-strength conveyor belts accounted for about 80%, product quality. At or near the international advanced level, it has become a major producer and consumer of the world.
The transmission belt is not only a major branch of the tape, but also an indispensable mechanical component. It is widely used in automobiles, machinery, textiles, home appliances, office automation, light industry, agricultural machinery and other fields. In the 1980s, Wuxi, Luoyang, Guiyang, Jiamusi and other tape companies introduced cutting edge transmission belts, agricultural machinery V belts and other production technologies and equipment, and then independently innovated on the basis of localization, implementing the variety of domestic transmission belt specifications, Specialized development, the emergence of Zhejiang Sanlix, Henan Jiulong and other key private enterprises, with narrow V-belt, wide V-belt, wide-angle belt, combined V-belt, trimmed V-belt, V-ribbed belt, timing belt and polyester New products such as wire rope V-belt are the mainstay, completely getting rid of the traditional ordinary cloth V-belt and ordinary/flat belt backward technology and backward products. Nylon and polyester rope structure products account for more than 90% of the total V belt, and the fatigue life of the HM type variable speed V belt exceeds 100 hours, and the service life is doubled. The anti-forming process has been promoted, and the development and application of drum vulcanizing machine, constant tension wire rope forming machine, high-precision cutting machine, belt grinding machine, grinding wedge machine and short fiber film cutting and splicing machine make the transmission belt production and process equipment go up. A new step. The total production of V belts in the country was 245 million A meters in 1985, 684 million A meters in 1995, 1.725 billion A meters in 2010, and jumped to 2.18 billion A meters in 2015. The old structural products have all been updated.
The hose products are derived from two major categories: rubber tube and resin tube. There are five types of general-purpose, high-pressure, automobile, petroleum and special-purpose hoses. They have entered the era of high-pressure hoses and automobile-specific hoses. The weaving and winding structure represents the production and technical level. Emerging private enterprises such as Tianjin Pengyi, Zhejiang Junhe, Sichuan Chuanhuan led the development. The national hose production has grown from 106 million standard meters in 1985 to 1.39 billion standard meters in 2015, with an average annual growth rate of 8.96%.
Rubber products have sprung up everywhere, from small circle mats for household use, to aerospace, high-speed rail engineering, automobile manufacturing, marine engineering, and national defense construction. Applications are becoming more and more extensive, and quality, variety, and specification requirements are getting higher and higher, raw materials are also Greatly diversified. As the focus of product upgrades, large-scale enterprises with an output value of over 10 billion in Anhui Zhongding and Zhuzhou Times emerged in the industry, forming a manufacturing base for the intensive three private enterprises in Zhejiang Ninghai, Wenzhou and Hebei Hengshui, plus the northwest of the former Ministry of Chemical Industry Research institutes such as Shenyang Rubber Research Institute have become the mainstay of innovation and production in the industry.
Ninghai Base has cultivated 6 state-level high-tech enterprises, 2 nationally recognized laboratories, 2 provincial high-tech R&D centers, and 5 municipal-level engineering and technical centers, and developed more than 300 new technologies, new products and new processes. Technology research and development expenses account for about 4% of the output value. The projects for mid- to high-end vehicles have also been included in the national and local key torch plans. The Wenzhou base has more than 300 production, trade and special equipment manufacturing enterprises. The self-developed continuous production prefabricated rubber runway is exported to France and other countries and has become the main force of the local industry. The Hengshui Engineering Rubber Manufacturing Base was first built. Its products cover five series of more than 1000 specifications, including basin rubber bearings, plate rubber bearings, rubber expansion devices, rubber waterstops and rubber dams. Patent, 60% of new products in domestic engineering rubber are blooming here, more than 80% of highways, high-speed railways, light rails, subways and other bridges, culverts, and rubber products needed for infrastructure such as water conservancy and construction are produced at this base. .
Sealing products and profiles for domestic large aircraft have achieved a foothold in China. The development of sealed and shock-absorbing rubber fittings for domestic high-end cars and high-end engines has effectively prevented the monopoly of foreign companies.
In the last century, the tire tire industry completed the nylon material of the skeleton material and the butadiene of the inner tube. With the change of the market, the trolley tire gradually faded out, and the electric bicycle tire, bicycle tire and motorcycle tire became the leading. The main use has been transformed from transportation, transportation, and transportation to fitness, fitness, competitive mountain bikes, snowmobiles, ATVs, lawn trucks and other high-tech products. The product structure has also evolved from the original 26吋, 28吋 and soft edge and hard edge products to dozens of new structures and new specifications, reflecting the diversification of product functions, lightweight carcass and increased added value. The former state-owned large and medium-sized tires factory in Shanghai, Qingdao, Tianjin, Wuxi, Henan and other places have withdrawn from the market. Private enterprises and joint ventures have emerged. Together with the existing state-owned enterprises in Hangzhou and Guangzhou, they have become the production and exporters of medium and high-end products. It accounts for about 60% of the world. In 2015, the national bicycle tire output reached 449 million, 4.4 times that of 1985; the total output of motorcycle tires reached 136 million, 75 times that of 1985.
Latex-based products are condoms for birth control, disease prevention and quality of life. The process and equipment are continuously improved, and all new functional products are replaced by ultra-thin transparent and thread-type functional new products. Medical latex gloves and household gloves, the production process and equipment have been significantly improved, and household gloves have become popular as a new skin care product for housework.
Waste rubber is rapidly increasing with the development of new products such as tires. It is not only industrial solid waste, but also a renewable raw material. It can fully protect the ecological environment and alleviate the shortage of rubber resources. The rubber industry has always been guided by new technologies and is firmly committed to this circular economy. Following the extensive adoption of the dynamic desulfurization process, a new process of continuous desulfurization at atmospheric pressure was developed, and new technologies and products for the production of waste rubber powder were developed. The regenerated rubber was mainly formed, and the waste rubber powder and rubber particles were directly developed. Application, carry out deep processing of reclaimed rubber and rubber powder, and continuously expand the application field. In the aspect of retreading old tires, the promotion and application of pre-vulcanization renovation process has also made new breakthroughs. Reclaimed rubber enterprises such as Nantong Huili, Laiwu Fuquan and Xiantao Juxing have made outstanding contributions to the implementation of circular economy. Through the production of rubber powder and recycled rubber, more than 90% of used tires are reused.
The main raw materials and equipment manufacturing complements the production of rubber products, promotes each other and develops together.
Carbon black is a traditional reinforcing material for rubber products. It is used in large quantities, high in output, and is also a large energy consumer. On the basis of the introduction of 10,000-ton new process carbon black, the combination of factory and factory will increase the annual production capacity of single line to more than 20,000 tons; the process uses wet granulation, bag filter device and tail gas utilization, which improves product quality and reduces There are 6 enterprises with annual output of more than 200,000 tons, and the total output of black cat carbon black, which is a holding company in China, has reached 1 million tons. Hebei Longxing, Shanxi Yongdong and other private enterprises have The old state-owned enterprise Suzhou Baohua carbon black grew into the backbone of the industry; the total consumption of raw oil and fuel oil was reduced from 3.2 tons of the old process to about 2 tons, and energy saving and consumption reduction brought new benefits to the enterprise. The total production of carbon black has grown from 250,000 tons in 1985 to 5 million tons in 2015.
With the development of green tires, the production and application of white carbon black has risen rapidly from scratch, and there have been many private enterprises with annual production capacity of over 100,000 tons, such as Wuxi Chengcheng Silicon, Zhuzhou Xinglong, Fujian Zhengsheng, Sanming Fengrun and Sanming Zhengyuan. The source has solved the urgent need for the development of radial tires. Carbon black companies have also developed new DZ series low-roll-resistance carbon black products to improve tire performance.
Rubber additives green products and clean production are the technological innovation themes in the auxiliaries industry. In the process of introduction and digestion and absorption of radial tires, rubber auxiliaries have been localized as key raw materials, and successfully developed insoluble sulphur series products, processing auxiliaries, various types of resins and other new products, which filled the domestic gap and eliminated toxic and harmful substances. Outdated products. The old products such as the accelerator M are reformed to achieve clean production, save energy and reduce consumption, and protect the environment. Driven by innovation, the excellent varieties of antioxidants, 6PPD and TMQ, accounted for more than 85%; the excellent varieties of accelerators, CBS, TBBS and DCBS accounted for half. The total output of Chinese auxiliaries was only 30,000 tons in 1985, and reached 1.1 million tons in 2015, accounting for more than 75% of global production. The rapid development of green auxiliaries has resulted in large-scale state-owned and private enterprises such as Shangyi, Shengao, Yanggu Huatai, Tianjin Kemai, etc. The production concentration is relatively high, and the top 10 industrial enterprises account for the total industrial output value. About 70% of the industry.
The replacement of the skeleton material products is a major key to the upgrade of radial tires, high-strength conveyor belts and various V-belt products. The skeleton materials such as steel cord, polyester and nylon cord formed a preliminary scale around 2000. In 2015, the total output of steel wire skeleton materials reached 2.49 million tons, and the fiber skeleton material reached 540,000 tons. The rise of large-scale state-owned and private enterprises and large brands of steel wire, polyester and nylon cords, such as Jiangsu Xingda and Jiangsu Junma and Henan Shenma Industrial, has effectively promoted the development of new skeleton materials. The latest material, aramid, has also been trial-produced.
The development demand for radial tires has revitalized the rubber machinery industry. After the rubber machinery industry came up, it also countered the new technological progress of radial tires and formed a win-win situation. In the meantime, the rubber machine industry has developed 34 kinds of new products such as molding and vulcanization. It has the production and supply capacity of all-steel radial tires, semi-steel radial tires and complete sets of equipment for large and large engineering radial tires. The meridian engineering giant tire production technology and equipment jointly developed by Tianjin Saixiang and Delta Group has reached the international advanced level and won the first national scientific and technological progress award in the rubber industry. The large-scale private enterprises such as the soft control shares and the Tianjin Saixiang, which are driven by innovation, have always insisted on the old rubber enterprises such as Dalian Rubber Machinery, Yiyang Rubber Machinery, Guilin Rubber Machinery and Guilin Rubber Machinery, which together with the product renewal, and jointly hold the rubber machinery industry into the world. First column.
The mold new product active mold directly related to the appearance and quality of the radial tire, starting at the same time as the radial tire, CNC machining technology is widely used, high-speed, ultra-high-speed machining, EDM and other new processes have become mainstream, the original hand-carved, inlaid The old craft of flowers and embossing was eliminated. Haomai Group, giant wheel intelligent equipment and other mold processing enterprises are gradually becoming specialized, large-scale and internationalized. Haomai Group successfully acquired American GMS company and established service centers in the United States, Europe and Southeast Asia, in Kunshan, Guiyang and Liaoning. Tianjin, Tianjin and other radial tire production areas set up manufacturing branches, becoming the industry leader. China Tire Active Mould has been converted from import to export and is widely used by domestic and foreign tire companies. Natural rubber planting and processing are in the agricultural sector. China broke the red line of rubber tree planting, successfully planted rubber gardens between 18 degrees and 24 degrees north latitude, and built processing factories to form three major planting, production and processing areas in Hainan, Yunnan and Guangdong. The annual output of natural rubber has increased year by year. The layout and system of production and processing have been continuously reformed and adjusted. The state-owned rubber park and private rubber garden coexist and develop together. The state-owned rubber plantation implements mechanized planting and pest control, which effectively increases labor productivity and saves production costs. Hainan Land Reclamation successfully integrated more than 80 small latex processing plants into 14 plants with an annual processing capacity of 20,000 to 80,000 tons and a centralized processing of more than 100,000 tons.